Aristotle's Theory of Justice as the Basis of Rawls' Justice as Fairness.
Aristotle distinguishes between general justice and particular justice. I argue that this distinction identifies a fundamental issue of justice that remains even in what Rawls terms a 'well-ordered society'. This is the issue of the fair distribution of the burdens and benefits of social cooperation. Rawls develops Aristotle's conception of particular justice through arguing that the proper subject of justice as fairness is the 'basic structure' of society. Further, his distinction between 'ideal' and 'non-ideal' theory clarifies Aristotle’s otherwise confusing distinction within 'particular' justice between distributive and corrective, or regulative, justice.