Reflex tachycardia with airway opening in obstructive sleep apnea
Catcheside, Peter G
Jordan, Amy S
MetadataShow full item record
Arousal from sleep is traditionally defined as a visually discernible shift to higher frequency activity in the sleep EEG lasting > 3 sec, with > 15-sec shifts considered full awakening. Arousals can occur spontaneously without an obvious trigger or be elicited by virtually any sensory stimulus applied with sufficient intensity to reach the “arousal threshold,” which varies between individuals and according to the “depth” or stage of sleep. Rather than simply a return to wakefulness, arousal appears to reflect a transiently activated state with altered responses to sensory inputs compared to wakefulness. Rapid cortical re-activation along with augmented cardiorespiratory and metabolic activity accompanying arousal has clear survival advantages, since all may be required to support “fight or flight” responses to exogenous or endogenous threats arising during sleep.