What causes breast cancer? A systematic review of causal attributions among breast cancer survivors and how these compare to expert endorsed risks.
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Purpose. The aim of this paper was to review published research that analyzed causal attributions for breast cancer among women previously diagnosed with breast cancer. These attributions were compared with risk factors identified by published scientific evidence in order to determine the level of agreement between cancer survivors’ attributions and expert opinion. Methods. A comprehensive search for articles, published between 1982 and 2012, reporting studies on causal attributions for breast cancer among patients and survivors was undertaken. Of 5,135 potentially relevant articles, 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Two additional articles were sourced from reference lists of included studies. Results. Results indicated a consistent belief among survivors that their own breast cancer could be attributed to family history, environmental factors, stress, fate or chance. Lifestyle factors were less frequently identified, despite expert health information highlighting the importance of these factors in controlling and modifying cancer risk. This review demonstrated that misperceptions about the contribution of modifiable lifestyle factors to the risk of breast cancer have remained largely unchanged over the past 30 years. Conclusions. The findings of this review indicate that beliefs about the causes of breast cancer among affected women are not always consistent with the judgment of experts. Breast cancer survivors did not regularly identify causal factors supported by expert consensus such as age, physical inactivity, breast density, alcohol consumption and reproductive history. Further research examining psychological predictors of attributions and the impact of cancer prevention messages on adjustment and well-being of cancer survivors is warranted.
This item is under embargo for a period of 12 months from the date of publication, in accordance with the publisher's policy. The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-014-0377-3.