Environmental policymaking under Howard: extinguishing the enemy within?
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This paper reflects on the relationship between the government and civil society, specifically environmental non-government organisations (ENGOs), during the Howard era. Three competing explanations were put forward to characterise the relationship during this time. While the Howard era has now come to a close, the lessons to learn and the implications for ENGOs still remain. Key amongst these include the importance of strategic repositioning of campaign strategies, the significance of carefully considering approaches to maintain and strengthen civil society as a whole during periods of hostility, and the crucial task of publicly maintaining and re-establishing the legitimacy of civil society groups and their democratic role while under threat.