Smoking change of English-, French-, and Chinese speaking immigrants in Ottawa and Gatineau, Canada
MacDougall, Colin James
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Background: Immigrant smoking change is of particular interest to multicultural health researchers and policymakers. Objective: To examine the smoking change of the English-, French-, and Chinese-speaking immigrants in Ottawa and Gatineau, Canada, and identify the demographic factors that correlate with the change and impact the change. Materials and Methods: In total, 810 immigrants of the three language subgroups were recruited by purposive-sampling method. Using self-reports, the participants answered questions regarding smoking change and demography in multicultural lifestyle change questionnaire of English, French, or Chinese version. Percentage, significance, and multivariate (correlation and regression) analysis methods were used in data analysis for the different subgroups. Result: Immigrants of different gender, language, and category subgroups exhibited values for different smoking rates, smoking rates before and after immigration, smoking change rates, and smoking belief change rates but no statistical difference between the rates. Smoking change (smoking behavior change + smoking belief change) correlated positively with age and duration of residence in Canada and negatively with gender and category of immigration. Smoking behavior change correlated positively with age and duration of residence in Canada and negatively with mother tongue and gender. Age and gender significantly impacted smoking change (smoking behavior change and smoking belief change). The duration of residence in Canada significantly impacted smoking belief change. Conclusion: The immigrants in Canada experienced different smoking changes. Age, gender, and duration of residence were the main impacting factors. Culture and acculturation were the relating contributing factors. Data of immigrant smoking change may provide an evidence for smoking control policymaking and policy-revising in Canada.