Sleep Change of English, French and Chinese speaking Immigrants in Ottawa and Gatineau, Canada
MacDougall, Colin James
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Objectives: This multicultural study aimed at examining sleep change of English, French and Chinese speaking immigrants in Ottawa and Gatineau, Canada, and identifying demographic factors that impact the change. Materials and Methods: 810 immigrants of the three language sub-groups were recruited by purposive-sampling. Using self-reports, respondents answered questions of sleep change (sleep behavior change and sleep belief change) and demography in Multicultural Lifestyle Change Questionnaire of English, French or Chinese version. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: Immigrants of different gender, language and category sub-groups exhibited different Sleep Time Change Rates, Sleep Time Increasing Rates, Sleep Time Decreasing Rates, Sleep Quality Change Rates, Sleep Quality Improving Rates, Sleep Quality Declining Rate and Sleep Belief Change Rates, but no statistical difference between the rates. Sleep Change (Sleep Behavior Change + Sleep Belief Change) and Sleep Behavior Change were correlated negatively with Mother Tongue, and positively with Age and Primary Occupation. Age and Primary Occupation significantly impacted Sleep Change. Gender significantly impacted Sleep Behavior Change. Mother Tongue significantly impacted Sleep Belief Change. Conclusion: Immigrants of different sub-groups in Canada experienced different sleep changes. Age and Primary Occupation were main impacting factors. Gender was a sleep behavior influencing factor. Mother Tongue was an important sleep belief affecting factor. Culture was a significant contributing factor. Acculturation was a relating impacting factor. Data may provide evidence and implication for immigrant health policy-making and policy-revising in Canada.