Dietary Change of English, French and Chinese Speaking Immigrants in Ottawa and Gatineau, Canada
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Objectives: The multicultural study aims at examining Dietary Change (Dietary Behaviour Change and Dietary Belief Change) of English, French and Chinese speaking immigrants in Ottawa and Gatineau, Canada, and identifying demographic factors that correlate with the change and impact the change. Materials and Methods: In total, 810 immigrants of the three language sub-groups were recruited by purposive-sampling. Using self-reports, respondents answered questions regarding Behaviour Change and Belief Change in Nutritional Food Consumption and Junk and Processed Food Consumption, and Demography in Multicultural Lifestyle Change Questionnaire of English, French or Chinese version. Percentage, significance of difference, correlation, regression and factor analysis were performed respectively to analyze the data in Dietary Change. Results: Immigrants of different gender, language and category sub-groups exhibited different rates in nutritional food and junk and processed food consumption changes, increasing and decreasing rates in consumption of different nutritional foods, increasing and decreasing rates in consumption of different junk and processed foods, and rates in nutritional food and junk and processed food belief changes. However, no statistical difference between the rates, except significant differences between increasing and decreasing rates of different category sub-groups in consumption of different nutritional foods and consumption of different junk and processed foods. Dietary Change (Dietary Behaviour Change + Dietary Belief Change) was correlated positively with Speaking Languages, Age and Religion, and Dietary Behaviour Change was correlated negatively with Religion. Speaking Languages, Age and Religion significantly impacted Dietary Change, and Religion significantly impacted Dietary Behaviour Change. Speaking Languages and Age significantly impacted Dietary Belief Change. One factor (factor one: dietary behaviour change factor) significantly influenced Dietary Change. Other factor (factor two: dietary belief change factor) did not significantly impacted Dietary Change. Conclusion: Immigrants of different sub-groups in Canada experienced different Dietary Change. Religion was a main factor influencing Dietary Change. Speaking Languages and Age were important factors impacting Dietary Belief Change. Acculturation was a relating factor contributing Dietary Change. Data of immigrant dietary change can provide evidence for dietetic health policy-making and policy-revising in Canada.