High-resolution manometry combined with impedance measurements discriminates the cause of dysphagia in children
Rodriguez, Leonel A
Nurko, Samuel J
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Pressure-flow analysis allows assessing esophageal bolus transport in relation to esophageal pressures. This study aimed to characterize pressure-flow metrics in relation to dysphagia in paediatric patients. We analysed esophageal pressure-impedance recordings of 5 ml liquid and viscous swallows from 35 children (17 M, mean 10.5 ± 0.8 years). Primary indication for referral was gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (9), post-fundoplication dysphagia (5), idiopathic dysphagia (16), trachea-esophageal fistula (2) and other (3). Peristaltic function was assessed using the 20 mmHg iso-contour defect and the timing between bolus pressure and flow was assessed using the Pressure Flow Index, a metric elevated in relation to dysphagia. Patients were stratified in relation to dysphagia and to peristaltic defect size. Dysphagia was characterized by a weaker peristalsis for liquids and higher Pressure Flow Index for viscous. When patients were stratified based on weak or normal peristalsis, dysphagia with weak peristalsis related to a larger iso-contour defect size and dysphagia with normal peristalsis related to higher Pressure Flow Index. Conclusion: Pressure-flow analysis enables differentiation of patients with dysphagia due to weak peristalsis (poor bolus clearance) from abnormal bolus flow resistance (esophageal outflow obstruction). This new dichotomous categorization of esophageal function may help guide the selection of optimal treatment such as pharmacological or endoscopic therapy.