Does the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors or established disease influence the dietary intake of affected adults and their children residing in the same household? A secondary analysis of the Australian Health Survey (2011–2013)
Miller, Michelle Deanne
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Background Diet is an important contributor to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and integral in management and delaying progression. Little is known however about whether increased CVD risk or established CVD has any influence on dietary intakes of Australian adults or children residing in the same household. This study aimed to determine whether the presence of CVD or CVD risk factors influences dietary intake of Australian adults and if the presence of an adult with increased CVD risk influences the dietary intake of a child living in the same household. Methods Data were sourced from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey for: (1) adults ≥18 years with risk factors or established CVD and (2) children 2–17 years residing in the same household as adults with CVD risk factors or established CVD. Selected nutrient intakes (total fat, saturated fat plus trans fat, alpha-linolenic acid, total long chain omega 3 fatty acids, fibre and sodium) collected by repeated 24 h recalls were compared to national dietary recommendations and to the intakes of all other adults and children surveyed. Standard errors of the estimates were calculated using the replicate weights method, and an alpha value of <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Six thousand two hundred sixty five of 9435 adults surveyed were identified as having CVD risk factors or established disease and of these 1609 had a child in the same household that also contributed data in this survey. No differences were observed in adjusted mean dietary intakes between those without risk factors or established CVD and those with, except for total energy and sodium which were significantly lower in the adults with CVD risk factors and/or established disease. However sodium intakes across both groups were higher than recommended targets. There were no differences for selected nutrients between children residing with affected adults and other children surveyed. Conclusions While intakes of Australian adults with CVD risk factors or established disease were favourable for sodium, compared to unaffected adults, there is still scope for improvement as many Australian adults, despite CVD risk, are unable to achieve targets for selected nutrients. Effective dietary behaviour change strategies and resources are urgently needed.
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