Electroconvulsive therapy and type 1 Chiari malformation
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Type 1 Chiari Malformation (T1CM) refers to a congenital herniation of the cerebellar tonsils though the foramen magnum of ≥5 mm (Pickard et al., 2012). Total prevalence in normal adults is almost 1%, yet only 0.01–0.04% of the population are symptomatic (Tubbs, 2013). The ectopic tonsils may cause obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the subarachnoid space at the craniocervial junction (Pickard et al., 2012). Patients may be asymptomatic, or display varied symptoms due to brainstem compression, cerebellar displacement, traction on cranial nerves or interference with CSF flow. Transiently elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) due to trapped cerebrospinal fluid causes the most common symptom, headaches, in 81% of patients (Fischbein et al., 2015). 10% of patients have associated hydrocephalus (Tubbs, 2013), and an unknown percentage have idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
Crown Copyright © 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ This author accepted manuscript is made available following 12 month embargo from date of publication (March 2018) in accordance with the publisher’s archiving policy