Bolus Residue Scale: An Easy-to-Use and Reliable Videofluoroscopic Analysis Tool to Score Bolus Residue in Patients with Dysphagia
Van Beckevoort, Dirk
Dejaeger, Eddy W
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Background. We aimed to validate an easy-to-use videofluoroscopic analysis tool, the bolus residue scale (BRS), for detection and classification of pharyngeal retention in the valleculae, piriform sinuses, and/or the posterior pharyngeal wall. Methods. 50 randomly selected videofluoroscopic images of 10 mL swallows (recorded in 18 dysphagia patients and 8 controls) were analyzed by 4 experts and 6 nonexpert observers. A score from 1 to 6 was assigned according to the number of structures affected by residue. Inter- and intrarater reliabilities were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for expert and nonexpert observers. Sensitivity, specificity, and interrater agreement were analyzed for different BRS levels. Results. Intrarater reproducibility was almost perfect for experts (mean ICC 0.972) and ranged from substantial to almost perfect for nonexperts (mean ICC 0.835). Interjudge agreement of the experts ranged from substantial to almost perfect (mean ICC 0.780), but interrater reliability of nonexperts ranged from substantial to good (mean 0.719). BRS shows for experts a high specificity and sensitivity and for nonexperts a low sensitivity and high specificity. Conclusions. The BRS is a simple, easy-to-carry-out, and accessible rating scale to locate pharyngeal retention on videofluoroscopic images with a good specificity and reproducibility for observers of different expertise levels.
Copyright © 2015 Nathalie Rommel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.