Prevalence of behavioral risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and associated socio-economic factors among pregnant women in a rural area in Southern Nepal
Singh, Jitendra K
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Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have dramatically infiltrated populations living in abject poverty in Low- and Middle-income Countries (LMICs), and poor maternal and child health outcomes have been frequently reported for those with CVD risk factors. However, few studies have explored the behavioral risk factors of CVDs among pregnant women in rural settings. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and identifying the socio-economic predictors of behavioral risk factors of CVDs among pregnant women in rural area in Southern Nepal. Methods: A Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 52 clusters of Dhanusha District of Nepal in a total of 426 pregnant women in their second trimester using multistage cluster sampling method. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess independent associations between behavioral risk factors during pregnancy and maternal socio-economic characteristics. Results: Of the 426 study participants, 86.9, 53.9, 21.3 and 13.3%, respectively, reported insufficient fruits and vegetables consumption, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, and harmful alcohol drinking. Socio-economic factors significantly associated with more than one behavioral risk factors in expectant mothers with a primary level education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.78; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.35-5.72)), 20-34 years age group (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 0.27; 95% CI (0.13-0.56)), and those with the highest wealth index (AOR 0.36; 95% CI (0.16-0.84)). Conclusion: Higher prevalence of behavioral risk factors for CVDs and their socio-economic factors prevailing among pregnant women living in rural Nepal call for immediate health promotion interventions such as community awareness and appropriate antenatal counseling.
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