Immunological failure in HIV-infected adults from 2003 to 2015 in Southwest Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study
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Objective To assess the prevalence, trend and associated factors for immunological failure (IF), and the magnitude of antiretroviral therapy (ART) shift among adults infected with HIV in Southwest Ethiopia. Setting A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using the data from ART clinic at Jimma University Teaching Hospital from 21 June 2003 to 15 March 2015. Participants Retrospective analysis of 4900 HIV-infected adult patient records dating from June 2003 to March 2015 was conducted. Primary outcome measure The primary outcome was IF defined when cluster for differentiation 4 (CD4) count falls to the baseline (or below) or persistent CD4 levels below 100 cells/mm3 after 6 months of ART treatment. The analyses included descriptive and inferential statistics. Results 546 (19.5%) adults had developed clinical failure (CF), 775 (19.7%) adults had developed IF and 1231 (25.1%) had developed either CF or IF or both. The prevalence of IF was consistently high throughout the decade. Age 25 to ≤50 years adjusted OR (AOR 1.5, 9% CI 1.2 to 2.4), being female (AOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 1.9), late presenter for HIV care (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.7) and having baseline CD4 count below 200 cells/mm3 (AOR 5.5, 95% CI 4.1 to 7.4), and having no history of HIV testing before diagnosis (AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) were the predictors for IF. Only 29 (0.9%) adults infected with HIV were shifted to second-line ART regimen. Conclusions The magnitude of CF or IF or both was found significant and consistently high throughout the calendar year although ART shift was found minimal. HIV-infected adult patients with IF were early age adults, females, late presenters for HIV care, and those who had low baseline CD4 counts and history of HIV testing before diagnosis.
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